您知道自己已经看过，或者自己对此感到内:：用数百个杠铃装载杠铃 pounds,\u00a0 un-racking the bar, taking a shaky step backwards, and then proceeding to perform short up and down oscillations of which the title \u201cquarter-squat\u201d might be generous.\u00a0 We often tend to laugh at these athletes, or "hate 上 " videos of these partial squats 上 的YouTube.\u00a0 There needs to be an honest look at the question though: does going to a depth in a squat that is anywhere short of receiving butt-chafage against the gym floor represent something we should be\u00a0 using as coaches and athletes? The squat is the king of lifts, certainly, and an invaluable tool in the explosive athlete\u2019s arsenal, but what is the best way to perform it?\u00a0 Most strength coaches will say that anything less than parallel is unacceptable, after all, half and quarter squats load up the spine and put much greater force 上 the quads, but do they have a\u00a0 place in an athletes training?\u00a0 Half squats are the norm in many training setups (many of which are successful), so where do they fit in to a training scheme? \u00a0 We have all seen this!\u00a0 Except that this lifter will typically have a belt, gloves, ipod, and possible do-rag 上 .\u00a0 Are quarter and half squats really all bad though? To answer this matter, I rounded up three of the brightest minds that I know regarding the issue in order\u00a0 to bring you this first ever roundtable discussion in sport science.\u00a0 Our lineup includes: Kelly Baggett: Vertical jump\/performance trainer and author of the Vertical Jump Bible Dave Kerin: USATF High jump national chair with 28 years of high jump coaching experience at the high school and college levels. 杰克·伍德鲁普: Owner of the incredible VerticalJumping.com website and vertical jump expert (Further bio\u2019s for these coaches are at the end of the article) I guarantee that you will come away from this article learning some great new things about 蹲深 and its use in producing athletes.\u00a0\u00a0 I have asked each of these coaches 5 questions 上 the topic. Here are their answers. Question #1. To what extent do you believe\u00a0 partials should be carried out for athletes aiming to increase their sprinting and jumping abilities, if any? (squats above parallel to a box, half-squats, quarter-squats, etc.)\u00a0\u00a0 Kelly Baggett: I feel they can be valuable for the following reasons: \tTo peak out strength: You can occasionally use them at the end of a strength cycle to help peak out your strength. You'll be using more weight 上 the bar which gets you used to lifting a heavier weight, which can then transfer into full range movements. \tNervous system stimulation: A partial range squat such as a quarter squat can be an effective stimulation method again because the weight is heavier and this extra load can serve as a decent neural stimulus.\u00a0 This can make them valuable during power and peaking cycles. You engage the nervous system strongly with these overload methods and that stimulation can carry over into your specific jumping work. \tTo unload the legs: Even though there's more weight 上 the bar the legs and hips don't have to work as hard in a partial squat.\u00a0 This can make them useful at times when you want to maintain strength but reduce fatigue in your legs, such as during peaking cycles. Dave Kerin:\u00a0 I believe that they are 上 e of many tools in the tool box.\u00a0 The coaching skill is in how they are employed. Tough question as there are too many variables not discussed.\u00a0 In general, if you look at sport specific demands you can see what the ROM is for say a Baseball Pitcher\u2019s leg action or a Long Jumper\u2019s. Remembering that strength does not develop \/ improve beyond a few degrees past either end of the ROM of a lift and then viewing that against the event specific movements is a starting point for the prescription of partials. Having said that, I\u2019d also say that too often, someone is lacking in full ROM work & max strength work.\u00a0 This due to current trends of lesser percentage loading, limited\u00a0 ROM work.\u00a0 My concerns with partials are, knee joint health and Q angle (particularly with females) and lack of posterior chain engagement.\u00a0 Also partials have a redundant relationship with event specific leg actions and as such, risk repetitive use issues. 杰克·伍德鲁普: The use of\u00a0 the partial reps in the weight room for explosive movements like sprinting and jumping is a very interesting topic. On 上 e hand you can see how the thinking works, jumping and sprinting don't use the same range of motion as a full squat, and therefore why would you choose to overload just the sports specific range of motion. After all it is common knowledge that the amount of weight you can handle is limited to what you can use at your weakest point, and in a squat the weakest point is at the bottom position. If you are to use 上 ly a partial range\u00a0 of motion repetition you would of course be able to overload using a substantially heavier load. The flip side of that argument is that you aren't necessarily trying to precisely mimic the sporting movements in the weight room.\u00a0 Rather the goal of weight training is to increase overall strength and to reduce the muscle imbalances (and therefore decrease the chance of injury) that 上 ly doing your sporting movements can produce.\u00a0 Personally I fall more into this camp. In terms of partial squats I am a big fan of loaded jump squats. While you might not use the same heavy loads as you do 上 a regular squat, you are still overloading to a certain extent the more sport specific range of motion. Question #2. How do you feel about the use of half squats by former championship level athletes such as Ben Johnson?\u00a0 Do you feel that squat training has evolved in the past decades based 上 progression in strength and conditioning? Kelly Baggett: I personally feel Ben Johnson would've been better served by lightening up the load a bit and going a bit\u00a0 deeper.\u00a0 He exemplifies 上 e of the weaknesses of partial range squats: The weights can get so heavy the risk of injury to the spine is greater. At ~600 lbs that's a lot of whole body stress.\u00a0 I believe Verkhoshansky was also sometimes against partial range squats in jumpers for this reason - they tend to have thin upper bodies and he was afraid the increased weight of a partial range squat would create problems for them. Dave Kerin: I am not well versed in all the details of Ben\u2019s lifting, but in my limited discussions with Charlie I saw him as a true genius.\u00a0 While far from agreeing with all his beliefs and methods, he was 上 e of the best I have known at getting improvement.\u00a0\u00a0 As for squat training, I don\u2019t believe that pure training has evolved as much as understanding of the human organism has. Scientific findings occur and the lag time between them and practical application has narrowed with the advent of the Internet and similar gains in access to information.\u00a0 Tendon development and health, mTOR, and neural issues (myelination) are some of what I am currently looking at.\u00a0 Fascia was the flavor of the month for a long time and as science marches 上 , there will be new information to translate into S&C\u2019s progression.\u00a0 Coaches who aren\u2019t at least comfortable in the sciences are at a disadvantage. 杰克·伍德鲁普: It is hard for me to comment 上 Ben Johnson\u2019s training program without knowing what else he was doing. I am sure that heavy partials were not the 上 ly weight training he did though. Do I feel that squat training has evolved over the years? Definitely! In my answer to the first question I outlined the main arguments for and against partial rep training. In times of the past it may have been in either\/or proposition, but now there are a number of ways that you can have the best of both\u00a0 worlds. Using either chains or bands, or a combination of both, it is very easy to overload the top ends of the squat, while simultaneously having the athlete get all the benefits of using a full range of motion. Once an athlete has mastered the full squat and has seen their beginner gains start to taper off I love introducing them to the concept of accommodating resistance. Chains in particular are a great way to start. They are not as eccentrically demanding as bands, they teach the athlete to focus 上 accelerating and exploding all the way through the rep, and best of all the loud clanging noise sounds really cool in the gym. I have two lots of chains that weigh 32.5 kg (71.5 pounds) each. That is 65 kg or 143 pounds of chain weight 上 the bar. In the bottom position if you have half of that resting 上 the ground that is a 30+\u00a0 kilogram difference between the top and the bottom of the movement. Also I love using trap bar deadlifts, and the trap bar in my gym is 上 e that 上 ly has a slightly raised handles. So whenever I use the trap bar (unless I have the athlete stand 上 a box) they are getting some partial rep exposure there. So while I may not explicitly use partial or reps in my programs that often I am realistically using methods that provide the same type of benefits nearly all the time. Question #3. What is your opinion 上 progression in 蹲深 in athletes?\u00a0 Beginner vs. Advanced?\u00a0 Do you ever feel that there ever would be a point where partials may be more appropriate for 上 e athlete than another? Kelly Baggett: I generally recommend athletes squat to legal powerlifting depth where the hip joint breaks parallel.\u00a0 The\u00a0 exception is in athletes with really long legs, for many of them a partial range squat is deep enough that they can't go much lower without rounding their lower back. For these athletes all I'd ever use is partials. My general recommendation is try to break parallel or stop when your back begins to round.\u00a0 A taller athlete will sometimes start to round their back at around parallel. Dave Kerin: Beginners should have a good instructor, 上 e who both knows how to instruct the lifts as well as how to start a first timer out.\u00a0 I\u00a0 would say that the sooner 上 e (methodically) progresses to full squats the\u00a0 better for many reasons.\u00a0 I have prescribed partials but timing is hard to specify as each individual and their situation is unique by morphology, sport\/event, training age, time of year, age, injury history, etc\u2026 杰克·伍德鲁普: I think I am open-minded enough to not be considered a deep squat Nazi, I definitely believe that all athletes wanting to jump higher and run faster should at least learn to squat to at least parallel though . In terms of beginner versus advanced I don't think there is too much of a difference of what is an appropriate 蹲深. The more pertinent question is choosing the right type of squat for the individual athlete that allows them to comfortably hit a decent depth 上 their reps.\u00a0 Depending 上 things like limb and torso length, joint mobility and flexibility, etc, some athletes are better suited to front squats, others are fine with back squats, and of course there are other options as well. These include box squats as well using different types of bar such as the safety bar which is easier for people with shoulder flexibility issues. There is 上 e circumstance though that I do use partial reps and that is for beginners who have problems with their knee coming in when they do a full squat. Using partial reps in these circumstances and gradually increasing the range of motion allows the athlete to learn good habits under load. Question #4. How do you feel partial reps should be cycled throughout the season for athletes looking to use this type of training? \u00a0 How does 蹲深 fit with periodization? Kelly Baggett: I would use them towards the end of a strength phase to help peak out strength levels. Basically the last couple of weeks whenever a strength phase is done. Dave Kerin: I am of the belief that a high end athlete should develop maximum strength over the greatest ROM before \u201cpartials\u201d. Partials can be introduced, feathered in with where that athlete is in their sport specific work \/ time of year.\u00a0 Similar to my views 上 Max Strength, I believe that you never fully get away from full range reps and at the least, every cycle should revisit them and if noticeable drop off is observed that following cycle should address this.\u00a0 In presentations I often discuss the trend favoring power work at percentages as opposed to improving and maintaining max strength.\u00a0 If you think about it there is similarity between partials and working at percentage of 1RM.\u00a0 In the case of percentages, I always encourage people to remember that \u201ca high tide raises all ships\u201d meaning\u00a0 improvement to max strength improves the strength at lesser percentages. 杰克·伍德鲁普: In light of my other answers I would 上 ly use partial rep training with advanced athletes who don?t have access to chains or bands. Where in the season would I use them? That would depend 上 the type of sport they were playing and the nature of the training and competition demands of that sport, plus their own individual level of development. Regardless, I would generally 上 ly use them in conjunction with\u00a0 other full range of motion exercises. Question #5. Do you feel there is a difference in the way you would use squatting in sprinters vs. jumpers? Kelly Baggett: I would separate the jumpers into 2 groups - bilateral and unilateral.\u00a0 I strongly emphasize squats, and\u00a0 squatting depth, in bilateral (2-foot) jumpers.\u00a0 In my experience the average athlete performing typical weight room (partial) squats will often put an immediate few inches 上 their vertical jump just by making it a point to achieve proper depth.\u00a0 Squats and squatting depth are a little less important for a unilateral jumper in my opinion - they're important, but unilateral jumpers tend to be taller and the event doesn't favor quite the same degree of quadriceps activation as a bilateral jump - thus they can get by with partial range squats and single leg movements such as lunges and step-ups. For sprinters I emphasize squatting but not as much as I emphasize the posterior chain and hamstrings:\u00a0 Romanian deadlifts, hip thrusts, reverse hypers, glute ham raises, and even leg curls in conjunction with squats, Bulgarian split squats, or lunges.\u00a0 I don't feel a squat is necessarily paramount to a sprinter - they can get by with other quad dominant lifts such as Bulgarian split squats or lunges.\u00a0 The sprints are more glute and hamstring intensive than the jumps are so some level of quadricep dominant exercise is important, but not AS important as squat are for a bi-lateral jumper. In other words, I don't know of many bi-lateral jumpers who've improved immensely without really emphasizing squats, but there are sprinters who've improved immensely without squatting at all. Likewise, their are unilateral jumpers who've improved from nothing but partial range squats or step-ups.\u00a0 The squat, particularly a fuller range squat, is most relevant to a bilateral VJ in my opinion. Dave Kerin: Yes but probably not as much as some might feel.\u00a0 I don\u2019t have too much history with high end sprinters and strength work so I will stay in my neighborhood.\u00a0 I would say that there isn\u2019t a lot of difference between event specific demands and strength needs of a 100m runner vs. a Long Jumper.\u00a0 As you move across the Jumps from LJ, PV, TJ to HJ, event demands do change and HJ having the least in common\u00a0 with sprinting is where the most difference is found.\u00a0 Even there, you have High Jumpers who trend toward long duration \u2013 large ROM at plant as opposed to high speed \u2013 lesser ROM jumpers.\u00a0 The difference comes with speed of effort. Quads - high speed, posterior chain - lower speed.\u00a0 Full Squats engage posterior chain, Partials are more Quad specific. 杰克·伍德鲁普: Oh definitely. For a start with sprinters would actually focus more 上 deadlifts than squats as my primary lift.\u00a0 The reason for this is that sprinting is much more dependent 上 glutes and hamstring strength. Of course I would complement this with other lifts to create a balanced workout but my primary heavy lift would be a deadlift or 上 e of its variants. For a jumping athlete I think it is less important whether or not you use a squat or a deadlift and here is why. Even though it is generally accepted that a vertical jump is more reliant 上 quad strength, the reality is that is that many athletes who are training to improve their vertical jump are doing so with an eye 上 getting better at a sport that involves plenty of running as well. As a result of this most of these athletes will get just as much benefit from choosing either a deadlift as their primary lift with some supplementary exercises that place added emphasis 上 the quadriceps,\u00a0 versus choosing a squat as their primary lift and using posterior chain based supplementary exercises. For the sake of this hypothetical argument though, if I could 上 ly choose 上 e exercise for the sprinters and 上 e exercise for the jumpers, and that exercise\u00a0 had to be a squat, and again for the sake of argument we are talking about a\u00a0 pure standing vertical jump rather than a running jump, than I would use a wide stance box squat for the sprinters as this places a greater emphasis 上 the hips, glutes, and hamstrings, and for the jumping athlete I would choose the front squat as this places greater emphasis 上 the quadriceps. \u00a0 So it turns out there are a few options in 蹲深 aside from what you see above! This concludes our first round table sport science discussion 上 a great topic.\u00a0 Many thanks go to each coach for their input.\u00a0 Please take some time if you haven't already to check a little bit more out about each contributor to this article. Author Biographies: Kelly Baggett: Kelly Baggett is the owner of Higher-Faster-Sports and is an expert trainer and writer in regards to vertical jumping, speed, athleticism and body composition.\u00a0 He is the author of the world-famous Vertical Jump Bible, and soon to hit the market, Vertical Jump Bible v2.0.\u00a0 Kelly took his own standing vertical jump to over 40 inches in his own training pursuits and has successfully trained many athletes to record\u00a0 performances.\u00a0 He has been featured by sites such as bodybuilding.com and ericcressey.com.\u00a0 You can find his home page at www.higher-faster-sports.com David Kerin: Dave Kerin\u2019s time as USATF Chair for Men\u2019s & Women\u2019s High Jump has coincided with a resurgence in the event.\u00a0 The last 2 years have brought 2 new American Records and a World Championship with Chaunte Lowe & Jesse Williams among USA\u2019s medal favorites for this summer\u2019s London Olympics.\u00a0 Dave\u2019s coaching career began with 14 years at the HS level followed by 14 years of collegiate coaching where an athlete set still standing NCAA D III records in women's high jump.\u00a0 A requested speaker and published author, he is perhaps best known for his work: \u201cWhat\u00a0 is the most direct means to achieve strength gains specific to the demands of jumping events\u201d. 杰克·伍德鲁普: 杰克·伍德鲁普 is the owner of the exceptional website devoted to vertical jumping: www.verticaljumping.com\u00a0 Jack has shown himself to be a true\u00a0 expert and pioneer in the field of jump development and is based out of Melbourne, Australia.\u00a0 He is the first to develop a vertical jump training program (http:\/\/www.verticalmastery.com) that uses computer software to create custom training programs suited to the needs of the athlete.